Intergroup conflicts (Bar-Tal)Ester Zoomer
One of the early #RetroConflictsInspirations has been Bar-Tal, D. (Ed.). (2011). Intergroup conflicts and their resolution. The reason is its holistic definition of conflicts with focus on connections, perceptions and actions, which works also for the past. ‘Conflicts are defined as situations in which two or more parties perceive that their goals and/or interests are in direct contradiction with one another and decide to act on the basis of this perception’.
This applies to (connected) micro, meso and macro interactions. Conflicts can be tractable (seen as solvable) or not. For historians, this holistic approach allows analyses of people’s strategies, tactics and motivations behind lawsuits, group clashes or wars, i.e. conflict management, without the sole focus on resolution or institutions. The premodern setting offers a broad repertoire of perceptions and decisions in conflicts. In particular, the volume triggers questions on which premodern conflicts were approached as tractable, and why. History’s benefit: knowledge of the outcome. Mostly.